One of the holdings in each county (normally a castle) is the capital and is always held by the count of that county. If the county capital is a city or temple then the realm is a republic or theocracy respectively. Duchies and higher ranked realms can also be republics and theocracies if the capital of the realm is a city or temple.
For most cultures, the ruler of a county is a count (male) or countess (female), but there are several exceptions:
- Earl/Countess (Saxon, English, Scottish, Irish)
- Sheikh/Shaykah (Arabic)
- Bey/Bayan (Turkish)
- Wâli/Shaykah (Iranian)
- Chief/Countess (Mongol, Pagan)
- Farin/Farina (West African)
- Calpixqui/Calpixqui (Nahua)
Note religous title variants 'trump' cultural ones. For example, a count with Mongol culture and Tengri pagan religion will be known as a Chief.
Similarly, counties themselves can also be known by other names:
- Sheikhdom (Arabic, West African)
- Beylik (Turkish)
- Vilâyet (Iranian)
- Chiefdom (Mongol)
The titles of counties and counts in republics and theocracies are different still.